Grammar categories

Articles The Definite Articles The Indefinite Articles Comparison Defective Verbs Future Time Nouns Past Time The Constructions The Use of Verb Forms Present Time

Progressive Forms In The Passive Voice

In English language two progressive forms in passive are used. The Present Progressive Passive I am being asked .The Past Progressive Passive 

Defective Verbs + Perfect Infinitive

When defective verbs are followed by have + past participle,  they indicate a past action. That action was not fulfilled or other way round.

Need – Dare

Defective verbs - Need / ni:d / and Dare. The ver need is used as a defective verb and as a regular verb. The defective verb need has only the present tense, takes no -s in the 3rd person singular.

Must – Ought – Should

Must express a necessity, a command or a probability. Ought to and should express moral obligation or a probability. Verb ought is more emphatic than verb should. Verb should is often used when subject is asking or giving advice. Also should often indicates a recommendation rather than obligation.

Can & May

Can and May, are two verbs that have only the past tense and the present tense. Verbs may and can express - ability, capability.


The construction be + to-infinitive also denotes a future activity already planned. This form also denotes obligation, intention or what should be done.


The form going + to-infinitive denotes a future activity already arranged, or decided upon. This form is very common in English for expressing such an action.

The Future Perfect Tense

The future perfect tense indicates a future activity which will be ended by a definite moment or period of time.

The Present Perfect Tense

The present perfect denotes a future activity in a temporal clause. Such an activity always covers three periods: the past, the present and, the future

The Future Progressive Tense

The Future Progressive Tense denotes an activity which will take place in a definite future moment or period of time. The definite moment/period is either expressed in the sentence or clearly indicated by context or situation.