The English language has many irregular verbs. In most cases, the irregularity concerns the past tense or the past participle.


The other inflected parts of the verb—the third person singular present indicative in -[e]s, and the present participle and gerund form in -ing—are formed regularly in most cases.


There are a few exceptions: the verb be has irregular forms throughout the present tense; the verbs have, do, go and say have irregular -[e]s forms and certain defective verbs (such as the modal auxiliaries) lack most inflection.


The following is a list of  irregular verbs that are commonly used in standard modern English.



Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle
abide abode, abided abode, abided
aby abought abought
alight alit, alighted alit, alighted
arise arose arisen
awake awoke awoken
backbite backbit backbitten
backfit backfit backfit
backlight backlit backlit
backslide backslid
backslid, backslidden
be was, were been
bear bore born, borne
beat beat beaten
become became become
bedight bedight, bedighted
bedight, bedighted
befall befell befallen
beget begot, begat begotten
begin began begun
begird begirt, begirded begirt
behight behight behight
behold beheld beheld
belay belayed belayed
bend bent bent
bereave bereft bereft, bereaved
beseech besought, beseeched
besought, beseeched
beset beset beset
bespeak bespoke bespoken
bestrew bestrewed
bestrewed, bestrewn
bestride bestrode bestridden
bet bet bet
betake betook betaken
bethink bethought bethought
beweep bewept bewept
bid bade bidden
bid bid bid
bide bided, bode bided
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
blaw blawed blawn
bleed bled bled
blend blended, blent blended, blent
bless blessed, blest blessed, blest
blow blew blown
bottle-feed bottle-fed bottle-fed
bowstring bowstrung, bowstringed bowstrung
break broke broken
breast-feed breast-fed breast-fed
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast, broadcasted
broadcast, broadcasted
browbeat browbeat
browbeat, browbeaten
build built built
burn burnt, burned burnt, burned
burst burst burst
bust bust bust
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
cheerlead cheerled cheerled
chide chid chid, chidden
choose chose chosen
clap clapped, clapt clapped, clapt
clear-cut clear-cut clear-cut
cleave cleft, cleaved, clove
cleft, cleaved, cloven
cleek claught, claucht, cleeked cleeked
clepe cleped
cleped, ycleped, yclept
cling clung clung
clothe clad, clothed clad, clothed
colorbreed colorbred colorbred
colorcast colorcast colorcast
come came come
cost cost cost
cost-cut cost-cut cost-cut
counterdraw counterdrew counterdrawn
counterlight counterlit counterlit
crash-dive crash-dived crash-dived
creep crept crept
creep-feed creep-fed creep-fed
crib-bite crib-bit crib-bitten
cross-bite cross-bit cross-bitten
cross-string cross-strung cross-strung
crossbreed crossbred crossbred
crosscut crosscut crosscut
crosslight crosslit crosslit
crow crowed, crew crowed
cut cut cut
dare dared, durst dared
daydream daydreamt, daydreamt
daydreamt, daydreamt
deal dealt dealt
deep-freeze deep-froze deep-frozen
dig dug dug
dight dight, dighted dight, dighted
dispread dispread dispread
disprove disproved
disproven, disproved
dive dived, dove dived
do did done
dogfight dogfought dogfought
dow dought, dowed dought, dowed
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt, dreamed
dreamt, dreamed
drink drank drunk
drip-feed drip-fed drip-fed
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt dwelt
eat ate eaten
end-run end-ran end-run
engird engirt engirt
engrave engraved
engraved, engraven
enwind enwound enwound
fall fell fallen
fast-cut fast-cut fast-cut
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit fit, fitted fit, fitted
flash-freeze flash-froze flash-frozen
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
floodlight floodlit floodlit
fly flew flown
flyblow flyblew flyblown
forbear forbore forborne
forbid forbade, forbad forbidden
force-feed force-fed force-fed
fordo fordid fordone
forecast forecast, forecasted
forecast, forecasted
forefeel forefelt forefelt
forego forewent foregone
foreknow foreknew foreknown
forerun foreran forerun
foresee foresaw foreseen
foreshow foreshowed foreshown
forespeak forespoke forespoken
foretell foretold foretold
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
forlese forlore forlorn
forsake forsook forsaken
forswear forswore forsworn
fraught fraught, fraughted
fraught, fraughted
free-fall free-fell free-fallen
freeze froze frozen
frostbite frostbit frostbitten
gainsay gainsaid gainsaid
geld gelded, gelt gelded, gelt
get got got, gotten
ghostwrite ghostwrote ghostwritten
gild gilt, gilded gilt, gilded
gin gan gan
gird girded, girt girded, girt
give gave given
gnaw gnawed gnawed, gnawn
go went gone, been
grave graved graven, graved
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hagride hagrode hagridden
halterbreak halterbroke halterbroken
hamstring hamstrung, hamstringed
hamstrung, hamstringed
hand-feed hand-fed hand-fed
hand-ride hand-rode hand-ridden
handsew handsewed
handsewn, handsewed
handwrite handwrote handwritten
hang hung, hanged hung, hanged
have had had
hear heard heard
heave heaved, hove heaved, hove
hew hewed hewn
hide hid hidden
hight hote, hight hoten
hit hit hit
hoise hoised, hoist hoised, hoist
hoist hoist, hoisted hoist, hoisted
hold held held
house-sit house-sat house-sat
housebreak housebroke housebroken
hurt hurt hurt
inbreed inbred inbred
indwell indwelt indwelt
inhold inheld inheld
inlay inlaid inlaid
input input, inputted input, inputted
inset inset inset
interblend interblended, interblent
interblended, interblent
interbreed interbred interbred
intercut intercut intercut
intergrave intergraved intergraved
interlay interlaid interlaid
interset interset interset
interweave interwove interwoven
interwind interwound interwound
inweave inwove, inweaved
inwoven, inweaved
inwind inwound inwound
jerry-build jerry-built jerry-built
keep kept kept
ken kent, kenned kent, kenned
kneel knelt, kneeled knelt, kneeled
knit knit, knitted knit, knitted
know knew known
lade laded laden, laded
landslide landslid, landslided
landslid, landslided
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leant, leaned leant, leaned
leap leapt, leaped leapt, leaped
learn learnt, learned learnt, learned
leave left left
lend lent lent
lep lept lept
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit lit
linebreed linebred linebred
lip-read lip-read lip-read
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
melt melted molten, melted
misbecome misbecame misbecome
miscast miscast miscast
mischoose mischose mischosen
miscut miscut miscut
misdeal misdealt misdealt
misdo misdid misdone
misfall misfell misfallen
misfeed misfed misfed
misgive misgave misgiven
mishear misheard misheard
mishit mishit mishit
misknow misknew misknown
mislay mislaid mislaid
mislead misled misled
mislearn mislearnt, mislearned
mislearnt, mislearned
misread misread misread
missay missaid missaid
missend missent missent
misset misset misset
misspeak misspoke misspoken
misspell misspelt, misspelled
misspelt, misspelled
misspend misspent misspent
misswear misswore missworn
mistake mistook mistaken
misteach mistaught mistaught
mistell mistold mistold
misthink misthought misthought
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
miswear misswore misworn
miswed miswed, miswedded
miswed, miswedded
miswrite miswrote miswritten
mow mowed mown
naysay naysaid naysaid
nose-dive nose-dived, nose-dove
nose-dived, nose-dove
offset offset offset
outbid outbid outbid
outbreed outbred outbred
outdo outdid outdone
outdraw outdrew outdrawn
outdrink outdrank outdrunk
outdrive outdrove outdriven
outfight outfought outfought
outfly outflew outflown
outgrow outgrew outgrown
outlay outlaid outlaid
outleap outleapt, outleaped
outleapt, outleaped
output output, outputted
output, outputted
outride outrode outridden
outrun outran outrun
outsee outsaw outseen
outsell outsold outsold
outshine outshone outshone
outshoot outshot outshot
outsing outsang outsung
outsit outsat outsat
outsleep outslept outslept
outsmell outsmelled outsmelled
outspeak outspoke outspoken
outspeed outsped outsped
outspend outspent outspent
outspin outspun outspun
outspring outsprang outsprung
outstand outstood outstood
outswear outswore outsworn
outswim outswam outswum
outtell outtold outtold
outthink outthought outthought
outthrow outthrew outthrown
outwear outwore outworn
outwind outwound outwound
outwork outworked, outwrought
outworked, outwrought
outwrite outwrote outwritten
overbear overbore overborne
overbid overbid overbid
overblow overblew overblown
overbreed overbred overbred
overbuild overbuilt overbuilt
overbuy overbought overbought
overcast overcast overcast
overcome overcame overcome
overcut overcut overcut
overdo overdid overdone
overdraw overdrew overdrawn
overdrink overdrank overdrunk
overdrive overdrove overdriven
overeat overate overeaten
overfeed overfed overfed
overfly overflew overflown
overgrow overgrew overgrown
overhang overhung overhung
overhear overheard overheard
overlay overlaid overlaid
overleap overleapt, overleaped
overleapt, overleaped
overlearn overlearnt, overlearned
overlearnt, overlearned
overset overset overset
oversew oversewed
oversewn, oversewed
overshoot overshot overshot
oversleep overslept overslept
oversow oversowed oversowed
overspeak overspoke overspoken
overspend overspent overspent
overspill overspilt, overspilled
overspilt, overspilled
overspin overspun overspun
overspread overspread overspread
overspring oversprang oversprung
overstand overstood overstood
overstrew overstrewed
overstrewed, overstrewn
overstride overstrode overstridden
overstrike overstruck overstruck
overstring overstrung overstrung
overtake overtook overtaken
overthink overthought overthought
overthrow overthrew overthrown
overwear overwore overworn
overwind overwound overwound
overwithhold overwithheld overwithheld
overwrite overwrote overwritten
partake partook partaken
pay paid paid
pen pent, penned pent, penned
pinch-hit pinch-hit pinch-hit
plead pled, pleaded pled, pleaded
potshot potshot, potshotted potshot
practice-teach practice-taught practice-taught
prebind prebound prebound
prebuild prebuilt prebuilt
precut precut precut
predo predid predone
premake premade premade
prepay prepaid prepaid
presell presold presold
preset preset preset
preshrink preshrank preshrunk
presplit presplit presplit
price-cut price-cut price-cut
proofread proofread proofread
prove proved proven, proved
put put put
quick-freeze quick-froze quick-frozen
quit quit quit
rap rapped, rapt rapped, rapt
re-prove re-proved re-proved
read read read
reave reft, reaved reft, reaved
reawake reawoke
reawoken, reawaken
rebid rebid rebid
rebind rebound rebound
rebroadcast rebroadcast rebroadcast
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt
recast recast recast
recut recut recut
redd redd, redded redd, redded
redeal redealt redealt
redo redid redone
redraw redrew redrawn
reeve rove, reeved rove, reeved
refit refit refit
regrind reground reground
regrow regrew regrown
rehang rehung rehung
rehear reheard reheard
reknit reknit, reknitted reknit, reknitted
relay relaid relaid
relearn relearnt, relearned
relearnt, relearned
relight relit, relighted relit, relighted
remake remade remade
rend rent rent
repay repaid repaid
reread reread reread
rerun reran rerun
resell resold resold
resend resent resent
reset reset reset
resew resewed resewn
reshoot reshot reshot
resit resat resat
resow resowed
resown, resowed
respell respelled, respelt
respelled, respelt
restring restrung restrung
retake retook retaken
reteach retaught retaught
retear retore retorn
retell retold retold
rethink rethought rethought
retread retrod retrodden
retrofit retrofit, retrofitted
retrofit, retrofitted
rewake rewoke, rewaked
rewoken, rewaked
reweave rewove, reweaved
rewoven, reweaved
rewed rewed, rewedded
rewed, rewedded
rewet rewet, rewetted rewet, rewetted
rewin rewon rewon
rewind rewound rewound
rewrite rewrote rewritten
rid rid, ridded rid, ridded
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
rive rived riven, rived
rough-hew rough-hewed rough-hewn
roughcast roughcast roughcast
run ran run
sand-cast sand-cast sand-cast
saw sawed sawn, sawed
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
self-feed self-fed self-fed
self-sow self-sowed
self-sown, self-sowed
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn, sewed
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaven, shaved
shear shore, sheared shorn, sheared
shed shed shed
shend shent shent
shew shewed shewn, shewed
shine shone shone
shit shat, shit shat, shit
shoe shod shod
shoot shot shot
shortcut shortcut shortcut
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shrive shrove shriven
shut shut shut
sidewind sidewound sidewound
sight-read sight-read sight-read
sightsee sightsaw sightseen
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
skywrite skywrote skywritten
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid, slidden
sling slung slung
slink slunk slunk
slit slit slit
smell smelt, smelled smelt, smelled
smite smote smitten
snapshoot snapshot snapshot
sneak sneaked, snuck sneaked, snuck
soothsay soothsaid soothsaid
sow sowed sown
speak spoke spoken
speed sped, speeded sped, speeded
spell spelt, spelled spelt, spelled
spellbind spellbound spellbound
spend spent spent
spill spilt, spilled spilt, spilled
spin span, spun spun
spit spat, spit spat, spit
split split split
spoil spoilt, spoiled spoilt, spoiled
spoonfeed spoonfed spoonfed
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stall-feed stall-fed stall-fed
stand stood stood
stave stove, staved, stoved
stove, staved, stoved
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank stunk
straphang straphung straphung
strew strewed strewn, strewed
stride strode, strided stridden
strike struck struck, stricken
string strung strung
strip stript, stripped stript, stripped
strive strove striven
sublet sublet sublet
sunburn sunburned, sunburnt
sunburned, sunburnt
swear swore sworn
sweat sweat, sweated sweat, sweated
sweep swept, sweeped swept, sweeped
swell swelled swollen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
swink swank, swonk swonken
switch-hit switch-hit switch-hit
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
telecast telecast, telecasted
telecast, telecasted
tell told told
test-drive test-drove test-driven
test-fly test-flew test-flown
think thought thought
thrive throve, thrived thriven, thrived
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
thunderstrike thunderstruck
thunderstruck, thunderstricken
tine tint, tined tint, tined
tread trod trodden
troubleshoot troubleshot troubleshot
typecast typecast typecast
typeset typeset typeset
typewrite typewrote typewritten
unbear unbore unborn, unborne
unbend unbent unbent
unbind unbound unbound
unbuild unbuilt unbuilt
unclothe unclad, unclothed
unclad, unclothed
underbid underbid underbid
underbuy underbought underbought
undercut undercut undercut
underdo underdid underdone
underfeed underfed underfed
undergird undergirt, undergirded
undergirt, undergirded
undergo underwent undergone
underlay underlaid underlaid
underlet underlet underlet
underlie underlay underlain
underpay underpaid underpaid
underrun underran underrun
undersell undersold undersold
undershoot undershot undershot
underspend underspent underspent
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
underthrust underthrust underthrust
underwrite underwrote underwritten
undo undid undone
undraw undrew undrawn
unfreeze unfroze unfrozen
unhang unhung unhung
unhide unhid unhidden
unhold unheld unheld
unknit unknit, unknitted unknit, unknitted
unlade unladed
unladen, unladed
unlay unlaid unlaid
unlearn unlearnt, unlearned
unlearnt, unlearned
unmake unmade unmade
unreeve unrove, unreeved
unrove, unreeved
unsay unsaid unsaid
unsell unsold unsold
unsew unsewed
unsewn, unsewed
unsling unslung unslung
unspeak unspoke unspoken
unspin unspun unspun
unstick unstuck unstuck
unstring unstrung unstrung
unswear unswore unsworn
unteach untaught untaught
unthink unthought unthought
untread untrod untrodden
unweave unwove unwoven
unwind unwound unwound
unwrite unwrote unwritten
upbuild upbuilt upbuilt
uphold upheld upheld
uppercut uppercut uppercut
uprise uprose uprisen
upset upset upset
upspring upsprang upsprung
upsweep upswept upswept
uptear uptore uptorn
vex vext, vexed vext, vexed
wake woke woken
waylay waylaid waylaid
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
wed wed, wedded wed, wedded
weep wept wept
wend wended, went wended, went
wet wet, wetted wet, wetted
whipsaw whipsawed
whipsawn, whipsawed
win won won
wind wound wound
winterfeed winterfed winterfed
wiredraw wiredrew wiredrawn
wit wist wist
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
withhold withheld withheld
withstand withstood withstood
wont wont wont, wonted
work worked, wrought worked, wrought
wrap wrapped, wrapt wrapped, wrapt
wreak wreaked
wreaked, wroken
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written
zinc zinced, zincked zinced, zincked

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