Defective verbs – Need / ni:d / and Dare.
The ver need is used as a defective verb and as a regular verb.
The defective verb need has only the present tense, takes no -s in the 3rd person singular.
The regular verb o need, unlike the defective need, has all verb forms, and is followed by a to-infinitive, a noun or a pronoun.
|need + subject + bare infinitive||do/does + subject + need + to-infinitive|
|Need you go home soon ?||Do you need to go home soon ?|
|Need he finish the game?||Does he need to finish the game ?|
|Need they fix that ?||Do they need to fix that ?|
|subject + need not + bare infinitive||subject + do/does + to-infinitive|
|She needn’t to do that.||She does not need to do that.|
|I needn’t to go to work today.||I don’t need to go to work today.|
|He needn’t to finish that.||He don’t need to finish that.|
|subject + need(s) + noun||subject + need(s) + to-infinitive|
|She needs new dress.||She needs to buy new dress.|
|He needs my help.||He need to call me for help.|
|That boy needs a ball.||That boy needs to play football.|
Those constructions can also be applied to the verb dare which may also be a defective or full verb.
Though, unlike need dare is sometimes used as a defective in the past tense as well.
Example of defective verb – Dare
|Dare to swim in that river ?||Does she dare to swim in that river ?|
|Dare you call her ugly ?||Do you dare to call her ugly ?|
|Dared you call her a ugly ?||Did you dare to call her ugly ?|